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A copper-in-tube access network, easy to migrate to optical fibre

A network of underground ducts containing bundles of guide tubes coupled by simple connectors, such that individual routes are formed in the branched access network. In these routes small copper twisted pair cables can be installed, by blowing. Or small optical cables. Or the copper cables can be replaced by optical cables. An operational pilot is described.

Proc. EC'97 (1997) 20-24
A. van Wingerden, A.T.M. Grooten, D.F. Hawkins, G. Brown, G. Plumettaz, H. Nijstad, W. Griffioen